Indicators of Biodiversity and Ecological Services

Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Forests

This indicator aims to monitor the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) released into and absorbed from the atmosphere by forests

Statistics for this indicator are derived from a modelHarris et al. 2021: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-00976-6 . that combined ground measurements and satellite observations with national GHG inventory methods from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Gross removals (reported by convention as negative values) and gross emissions (reported as positive values) were estimated separately, and the net flux was calculated by subtracting gross emissions from gross removals. Emissions are estimated annually, while removals and net flux are averaged over 20 years. The results, generated at 30-meter resolution, allow GHG fluxes to be calculated in forest areas over a range of sizes.

Get the Latest in Your Inbox

Want to stay up to date on the state of the world’s forests? Subscribe to our mailing list.

What is the global distribution of GHG fluxes from forests?

Globally, carbon dioxide removals by existing and regenerating forests exceed GHG emissions from forest disturbances such as deforestation, wood harvest and wildfires. Between 2001 and 2020, emissions from deforestation and other forest disturbances were 8.3 gigatonnes (Gt) CO2e per year on average, while removals by forests were -15.6 Gt CO2e per year on average.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. This resulted in an average net sink of -7.3 Gt CO2e per year, equivalent to the world’s forests removing approximately 1.2 times the annual GHG emissions from the United States.Based on 2018 data excluding LUCF. Climate Watch. 2021. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at: https://www.climatewatchdata.org .

More

What are GHG fluxes from forests?

As forests grow, they reduce the level of CO2 in the atmosphere by absorbing CO2 through photosynthesis and storing the carbon in vegetation and soil. When trees are cut, cleared, or burned and forest soils are tilled or drained for agriculture, CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are released into the atmosphere. 

The difference between GHG released (gross emissions) and CO2 absorbed (gross removals) is the net flux. The net flux can therefore be positive (net source, adding GHGs to the atmosphere) or negative (net sink, taking CO2 out of the atmosphere), depending on the balance of gross fluxes.

More

Different greenhouse gases (GHGs) can have different warming effects due to differences in their ability to absorb energy and in the length of time they persist in the atmosphere. ‘Global warming potential’ was developed to measure how much energy the emissions of one ton of gas will absorb over a given time period (typically 100 years), relative to the emissions of one ton of carbon dioxide (CO2).EPA, 2021: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/understanding-global-warming-potentials . Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to aggregate emissions from various GHGs on the basis of their 100-year global warming potentials by equating non-CO2 GHGs to the equivalent amount of CO2. Thus, CO2e provides a standardized unit for measuring the warming effects of various GHGs. 

Because emissions estimates include CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), this indicator refers to GHGs for emissions and CO2 for removals. Forests in which emissions exceed removals are referred to as a “net source” to the atmosphere, and forests in which removals exceed emissions are referred to as a “net sink”. For consistency, values for emissions (reported as positive values), removals (reported as negative values), and net flux are reported in units of CO2e.

More

Global GHG fluxes from forests (2001-20)

More

Over the last twenty years, removals by forests in all climate domains (tropical, subtropical, temperate, boreal) exceeded emissions from forest disturbances.Climate domains designated according to FAO Global Ecological Zones, 2012: http://www.fao.org/3/ap861e/ap861e00.pdf . Tropical forests had both the highest average annual gross emissions and gross removals of all climate domains, with average emissions of 5.4 Gt CO2e per year and average removals of -7.0 Gt CO2e per year.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Although tropical forests removed a larger quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide than forests in other climate domains, average annual gross emissions from disturbances in tropical forests were nearly double the gross emissions from disturbances in temperate, subtropical, and boreal forests combined. As a result, tropical forests made up only 21 percent of the global net forest sink while temperate forests made up 48 percent of the global net forest sink, with an average annual net sink of -3.5 Gt CO2e per yearSee <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>.—equivalent to temperate forests removing India and Japan’s annual GHG emissions from energy.Based on 2018 data. Climate Watch. 2021. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at: https://www.climatewatchdata.org . In addition to having the largest total net sink, temperate forests also had the largest net sink per hectare , with an average net sink of -5.9 tonnes CO2e per hectare per year. Tropical forests had the smallest net sink per hectare, with an average net sink of -0.77 tonnes CO2e per hectare per year.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>.  

More

The countries with the highest forest-related emissions have extensive forest area, ranging from approximately 29 million hectares—nearly the area of Italy—to 755 million hectares in 2010, the most recent year for which data is available (see the Forest Extent indicator). However, the types of forest disturbances that drove emissions among the top-ten highest emitting countries varied. For Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Bolivia, the majority of forest-related GHG emissions were associated with the clearing of forests for commodity production, reflecting a permanent loss of tree cover.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Meanwhile, the majority of forest-related emissions in the United States, Canada, and China were associated with forestry operations within these countries, likely reflecting temporary losses of tree cover due to harvesting cycles.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. While a substantial proportion of Russia’s forest-related emissions were also associated with forestry, the majority were due to wildfire.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Colombia, most forest-related emissions were associated with shifting agriculture, where forests are cleared for small to medium-scale agricultural production for a few years, and then temporarily abandoned to allow trees to regrow.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Together, these ten countries with the highest gross emissions accounted for approximately 69 percent of global forest-related gross emissions between 2001 and 2020. Brazil had the highest annual forest-related gross GHG emissions, releasing an average of 1.6 Gt CO2e per year, followed by Indonesia (0.95 Gt CO2e per year) and the United States (0.81 Gt CO2e per year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>.

More

As with emissions, the countries with the highest forest-related removals have extensive forest area, ranging from approximately 21 million hectares to 755 million hectares in 2010 (see the Forest Extent indicator). The ten countries with the highest gross removals accounted for 65 percent of global forest-related gross CO2 removals between 2001 and 2020. Russia had the highest annual forest-related gross CO2 removals, averaging -2.4 Gt CO2e per year, followed by Brazil (-1.8 Gt CO2e per year) and the United States (-1.5 Gt CO2e per year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Over 95 percent of the removals were from existing forests undisturbed since the year 2000, with the remainder from new forest growth since 2000.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>.

More

Similar to forests globally, removals by forests in most countries exceeded emissions from forest disturbances. However, there are notable exceptions; among countries whose forests were a net source, Indonesia had the highest net emissions from forests (0.30 Gt CO2e per year), followed by Malaysia (0.13 Gt CO2e per year) and Laos (0.05 Gt CO2e per year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. In all three of these countries, the majority of forest-related emissions were due to commodity-driven deforestation. Among countries whose forests were a net sink, Russia had the highest net removals by forests (-1.8 Gt CO2e per year), followed by Canada (-0.95 Gt CO2e per year) and the United States (-0.71 Gt CO2e year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. In these countries, removals by established, managed and regenerating forests exceeded emissions from disturbances, including harvest and wildfire.

More

How do different types of forest disturbances affect GHG fluxes?

Commodity-driven deforestation and forests cleared for urban expansion and intensification likely represent permanent tree cover loss, while forestry, wildfire and shifting agriculture generally entail temporary loss and can be followed by forest regrowth through tree planting or natural regeneration (see the Forest Loss indicator for a description of these disturbances). Globally, gross annual GHG emissions were highest in areas where the dominant driver of tree cover loss was commodity-driven deforestation, averaging 2.8 Gt CO2e per year (approximately 34 percent of global forest-related gross GHG emissions), while emissions from urbanization were negligible globally but considerable in some regions, such as the southeastern United States.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Data for drivers of tree cover loss based on Curtis et al. 2018: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3445 . Miller 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.11.010 . The majority of GHG emissions from commodity-driven deforestation were concentrated in tropical forests in South America and Southeast Asia. Brazil and Indonesia accounted for nearly 70 percent of gross annual GHG emissions from commodity-driven deforestation, followed by Malaysia (8 percent), Bolivia and Vietnam (each 3 percent).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. 

Production forests produce emissions when trees are harvested and remove CO2 when trees are regrown or left undisturbed. Globally, landscapes dominated by forestryAreas are designated using Curtis et al. 2018, which classifies the dominant driver of tree cover loss from 2001-2020 within a 10km2 grid cell. Only grid cells that experienced tree cover loss are classified with a dominant driver and cells can include forest areas that did not experience any loss. Any stable forestry areas which did not experience loss within the 10km2 grid cell are excluded from these estimates. removed more carbon due to forest management and regrowth than they emitted due to harvesting, providing an average annual net sink of -3.0 Gt CO2e per year (gross emissions of 2.3 Gt CO2e per year and gross removals of -5.3 Gt CO2e per year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Whether and to what extent production forests are net sinks or sources at smaller scales depends on how they are managed and the area over which fluxes are calculated.Harris and Gibbs, 2021. https://www.globalforestwatch.org/blog/climate/forests-carbon-emissions-sink-flux/ . Similarly, forests in shifting agriculture landscapes removed more carbon than they emitted, providing an average annual net sink of -1.0 Gt CO2e per year (gross emissions of 2.2 Gt CO2e per year and gross removals of -3.2 Gt CO2e per year).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Emissions from wildfires are discussed in the box below. 

More

As climate change brings warmer and drier conditions to some regions of the world, the severity and frequency of large wildfires has increasedSeidl et al., 2017. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3303 . Westerling, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0178 . USGCRP, 2018. https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/ ., leading to increased GHG emissions from fires.Harris, Monroe, and Levin, 2020. https://www.wri.org/insights/6-graphics-explain-climate-feedback-loop-fueling-us-fires . In certain types of forest ecosystems, such as some conifer forests in the western U.S., research has shown that larger, more severe wildfires combined with hotter, drier conditions has hampered the ability of certain tree species to regrow, potentially limiting future carbon storage potential and leading to a transformation of the ecosystem.Tepley et al., 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13704 . Stevens-Rumann et al., 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12889 . Chambers et al., 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.001 . Stevens-Rumann et al., 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42408-019-0032-1 . In addition to CO2, forest fires are a source of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Although these greenhouse gases do not persist in the atmosphere for as long as CO2, they are much more potent: one tonne of CH4 is estimated to have 28 times the warming impact of one tonne of CO2 over a 100-year time period, while one tonne of N2O is estimated to have 265 times the warming impact of one tonne of CO2.IPCC, 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full.pdf .  See box above "What is carbon dioxide equivalent?" Globally, wildfires emitted an average of 1.1 Gt CO2e per year between 2001 and 2020. Of this, CO2 accounted for approximately 92 percent of GHG emissions from forests, while CH4 and N2O accounted for approximately 8 percent.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Wildfires are based on the MODIS collection 6 burned area global product (Giglio et al., 2018). MODIS burned area was used to delimit wildfires rather than the Curtis et al. 2018 wildfire driver class because of the additional spatial detail provided by MODIS.  

In 2019-2020, Australia experienced one of the most catastrophic fire seasons in the country’s history, demonstrating the human, ecological, and climate impacts of increasingly extreme wildfire events. Research has shown that the devastating fire season can be traced to various factors, including prolonged drought, increased temperatures, high wind speed, lower surface soil moisture, and lower relative humidity, among others.Deb et al. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020EF001671 . The impact of these fires on GHG emissions is evident: forest-related GHG emissions associated with wildfire in Australia increased nearly thirtyfold in 2019-2020 compared to the annual average from 2001-2018, increasing from an average of 0.014 Gt CO2e per year to an average of 0.39 Gt CO2e per year.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. A commonly cited estimate of GHG emissions from fires is the <a href=" https://www.globalfiredata.org/"> Global Fire Emissions Database</a> (GFED), which estimates emissions from all burned areas (not just forests) and is based on a biogeochemical model (see Van der Werf et al. 2017. https://essd.copernicus.org/articles/9/697/2017/). Due to differences in scope and modeling methods, emissions estimates between GFED and this data may differ.

More

How much of the world’s net sink from forests falls within protected areas and indigenous lands?

Protected forests and indigenous lands are demonstrated to provide critical stewardship of forests and their carbon.Walker et al. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913321117 . Ding et al. 2016. https://www.wri.org/research/climate-benefits-tenure-costs . Forests in protected areasProtected areas designated according to the <a href=" https://www.protectedplanet.net/en"> World Database on Protected Areas</a> and include all categories defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. had an average annual net sink of -2.0 Gt CO2e per year, accounting for approximately 27 percent of the average annual global net sink from forests. Forests in indigenous and community lands for which spatial data is availableIndigenous and community lands designated according to the LandMark <a href=" http://www.landmarkmap.org/data/"> Global Platform of Indigenous and Community Lands, 2019: http://www.landmarkmap.org</a>. This includes all categories as designated by LandMark: indigenous and community lands that are both acknowledged and not acknowledged by government, as well as indicative areas of indigenous and community land rights. Because spatial data on the boundaries of indigenous lands are limited, the LandMark data set does not have complete global coverage of all indigenous and community lands. See the LandMark <a href=" http://www.landmarkmap.org/data/"> LandMark website</a> for details. had an average annual net sink of -0.59 Gt CO2e per year, accounting for 8 percent of the average annual global net sink from forests.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>. Combined, protected areas and indigenous lands had an average annual net sink of -2.2 Gt CO2e per year— equivalent to the forest net sink of Russia and China— accounting for 31 percent of the average annual global net sink from forests (note there is some overlap in protected areas and indigenous and community lands).See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#co2-flux">Data and Methods</a>.  

More

Limitations and Future Prospects

GHG flux data for this indicator are derived from the model described in Harris et al. (2021). While that model was developed with the best data available, future updates to the model can incorporate new data as it becomes available, thereby improving the GHG flux estimates used for this indicator. 

As described in Harris et al. (2021), the GHG flux data derived from the model have some limitations.Harris et al. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-00976-6 . First, the Global Forest Change data setHansen et al. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244693 . used as the basis for tree cover extent and change contains temporal inconsistencies. The tree cover loss data is updated annually through 2020; however, the tree cover gain data represent a cumulative total from 2000-2012, rather than annual gains, and has not been updated past 2012. For this reason, gross emissions can be estimated annually while gross removals and net flux are reported as annual averages due to the lack of completeness and temporal resolution in the tree cover gain data. While this limits the ability to estimate annual trends in gross removals and net flux, GHG flux estimates were found to be relatively insensitive to this limitation because the vast majority of carbon removals occurred in forests that were undisturbed throughout the 2000-2020 time period; tree cover gain after 2000 accounted for less than 5% of global gross removals. Regarding emissions, recent years in the tree cover loss data set have been better able to detect certain types of tree cover disturbances, such as fire, selective logging, and shifting agriculture, due to algorithm improvements and the incorporation of data from Landsat 8 (beginning in 2013). This means that loss, and associated emissions, in regions that experienced these types of disturbances are better detected in more recent years. Despite these improvements in recent years, emissions from forest disturbances that are not detected in medium resolution satellite imagery will be underestimated. A new version of the Global Forest Change data set with improved temporal consistency is currently in development. Once available, this data will be incorporated into the model and will improve forest GHG flux estimates. 

Second, uncertainty is higher for estimates of gross removals than for estimates of gross emissions, largely due to high uncertainty for forest carbon removal factors (rate of carbon sequestration) for established temperate forests outside the U.S. and Europe due to a lack of forest inventory data from which to derive these factors. 

Other approaches are also used to estimate GHG fluxes from forests or land, such as observedFor example, the US Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. https://www.fia.fs.fed.us/ . or modeled,Xu et al., 2021. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe9829 . Baccini et al. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam5962 . changes in tree carbon stocks over time, carbon bookkeeping models,Hong et al. 2021. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-03138-y . dynamic global vegetation modelsForkel et al 2019. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55187-7 . and observation from space with satellites.https://gedi.umd.edu/science/objectives-overview/objectives_overview-biomass-and-change/ . However, these models are generally not directly comparable to each other or to the data used for this indicator because of differences in the ways they classify forests, in the data inputs used for model calibration and how emissions and removals are characterized. 

More
{"Glossary":{"51":{"name":"agricultural tree crops","description":"Trees cultivated for their food, cultural, or economic values. These include oil palm, rubber, cocoa, cashew, mango, oranges (citrus), plantain, banana, and coconut.\r\n"},"94":{"name":"biodiversity intactness","description":"The proportion and abundance of a location\u0027s original forest community (number of species and individuals) that remain.\u0026nbsp;\r\n"},"95":{"name":"biodiversity significance","description":"The importance of an area for the persistence of forest-dependent species based on range rarity.\r\n"},"98":{"name":"carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)","description":"Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to aggregate emissions from various greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the basis of their 100-year global warming potentials by equating non-CO2 GHGs to the equivalent amount of CO2.\r\n"},"99":{"name":"CO2e","description":"Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to aggregate emissions from various greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the basis of their 100-year global warming potentials by equating non-CO2 GHGs to the equivalent amount of CO2.\r\n"},"1":{"name":"deforestation","description":"The change from forest to another land cover or land use, such as forest to plantation or forest to urban area.\r\n"},"77":{"name":"deforested","description":"The change from forest to another land cover or land use, such as forest to plantation or forest to urban area.\r\n"},"76":{"name":"degradation","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"75":{"name":"degraded","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"79":{"name":"disturbances","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"68":{"name":"disturbed","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"65":{"name":"driver of tree cover loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"70":{"name":"drivers of loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"81":{"name":"drivers of tree cover loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"2":{"name":"forest","description":"Forests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than 5 meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\r\n"},"3":{"name":"forest concession","description":"A legal agreement allowing an entity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\r\n"},"90":{"name":"forest concessions","description":"A legal agreement allowing an entity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\r\n"},"53":{"name":"forest degradation","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"54":{"name":"forest disturbance","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"100":{"name":"forest disturbances","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"5":{"name":"forest fragmentation","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"6":{"name":"forest management plan","description":"A plan that documents the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land to meet environmental, economic, social, and cultural objectives. Such plans are typically implemented by companies in forest concessions.\r\n"},"62":{"name":"forests","description":"Forests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than 5 meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\r\n"},"69":{"name":"fragmentation","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"80":{"name":"fragmented","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"74":{"name":"gain","description":"The establishment of tree canopy in an area that previously had no tree cover. Tree cover gain may indicate a number of potential activities, including natural forest growth or the crop rotation cycle of tree plantations.\r\n"},"7":{"name":"hectare","description":"One hectare equals 100 square meters, 2.47 acres, or 0.01 square kilometers and is about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (pitches are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\r\n"},"66":{"name":"hectares","description":"One hectare equals 100 square meters, 2.47 acres, or 0.01 square kilometers and is about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (pitches are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\r\n"},"67":{"name":"intact","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"78":{"name":"intact forest","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"8":{"name":"intact forests","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"55":{"name":"land and environmental defenders","description":"People who peacefully promote and protect rights related to land and\/or the environment.\r\n"},"9":{"name":"loss driver","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"10":{"name":"low tree canopy density","description":"Less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\r\n"},"84":{"name":"managed forest concession","description":"Areas where governments have given rights to private companies to harvest timber and other wood products from natural forests on public lands.\r\n"},"83":{"name":"managed forest concession maps for nine countries","description":"Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Indonesia, Liberia, and the Republic of the Congo\r\n"},"91":{"name":"megacities","description":"A city with more than 10 million people.\r\n"},"57":{"name":"megacity","description":"A city with more than 10 million people."},"56":{"name":"mosaic restoration","description":"Restoration that integrates trees into mixed-use landscapes, such as agricultural lands and settlements, where trees can support people through improved water quality, increased soil fertility, and other ecosystem services. This type of restoration is more likely in deforested or degraded forest landscapes with moderate population density (10\u2013100 people per square kilometer). "},"86":{"name":"natural","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"12":{"name":"natural forest","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"63":{"name":"natural forests","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"82":{"name":"persistent gain","description":"Forests that have experienced one gain event from 2001 to 2016.\r\n"},"13":{"name":"persistent loss and gain","description":"Forests that have experienced one loss or one gain event from 2001 to 2016."},"97":{"name":"plantation","description":"An area in which trees have been planted, generally for commercial purposes.\u0026nbsp;\r\n"},"93":{"name":"plantations","description":"An area in which trees have been planted, generally for commercial purposes.\u0026nbsp;\r\n"},"88":{"name":"planted","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"14":{"name":"planted forest","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"73":{"name":"planted forests","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"15":{"name":"primary forest","description":"Old-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The GFR uses a humid tropical primary rainforest data set, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\r\n"},"64":{"name":"primary forests","description":"Old-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The GFR uses a humid tropical primary rainforest data set, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\r\n"},"58":{"name":"production forest","description":"A forest where the primary management objective is to produce timber, pulp, fuelwood, and\/or nonwood forest products."},"89":{"name":"production forests","description":"A forest where the primary management objective is to produce timber, pulp, fuelwood, and\/or nonwood forest products.\r\n"},"87":{"name":"seminatural","description":"A managed forest modified by humans, which can have a different species composition from surrounding natural forests.\r\n"},"59":{"name":"seminatural forests","description":"A managed forest modified by humans, which can have a different species composition from surrounding natural forests. "},"96":{"name":"shifting agriculture","description":"Temporary loss or permanent deforestation due to small- and medium-scale agriculture.\r\n"},"17":{"name":"tree cover","description":"All vegetation greater than five meters in height and may take the form of natural forests or plantations across a range of canopy densities. Unless otherwise specified, the GFR uses greater than 30 percent tree canopy density for calculations.\r\n"},"71":{"name":"tree cover canopy density is low","description":"Less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\r\n"},"60":{"name":"tree cover gain","description":"The establishment of tree canopy in an area that previously had no tree cover. Tree cover gain may indicate a number of potential activities, including natural forest growth or the crop rotation cycle of tree plantations."},"18":{"name":"tree cover loss","description":"The removal or mortality of tree cover, which can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, loss does not equate to deforestation. "},"19":{"name":"tree plantation","description":"An agricultural plantation of fast-growing tree species on short rotations for the production of timber, pulp, or fruit.\r\n"},"72":{"name":"tree plantations","description":"An agricultural plantation of fast-growing tree species on short rotations for the production of timber, pulp, or fruit.\r\n"},"85":{"name":"trees outside forests","description":"Trees found in urban areas, alongside roads, or within agricultural land\u0026nbsp;are often referred to as Trees Outside Forests (TOF).\u202f\r\n"}}}