Top 10 Lists

These lists provide a deeper exploration of forest trends at the country level. We currently provide two rankings: countries with the most tree cover loss and countries in the humid tropics with the most primary forest loss. These rankings correspond to the Forest Loss Indicator and the Primary Forest Loss Indicator, respectively. We aim to add more rankings over time corresponding to additional indicators, including tree cover gain and net tree cover change.  

Context is extremely important to understanding why certain countries feature on these lists and what their ranking means. Appearing on a top 10 list does not necessarily indicate a problem. To the extent possible, these lists provide additional context to help readers draw useful conclusions about what is happening in each country. 

These top 10 lists provide a deeper exploration of forest trends at the country level.

The Top 10 Countries for Total Tree Cover Loss from 2001 to 2019

This list reveals some of the most important countries to target for forest conservation because they represent the largest total areas of tree cover loss globally. As one might expect, the countries with the most forests also tend to be the countries with the most tree cover loss. However, not all tree cover loss indicates deforestation because some tree cover loss (e.g., related to commercial forestry activities) is temporary in nature when forests are allowed to regrow. As such, this list also provides context about the drivers of tree cover loss in a given country and indicates the percentage of tree cover loss that is likely to be permanent. Countries with a high percentage of permanent loss could be viewed as priorities for efforts to reduce deforestation. Countries with a high percentage of temporary loss could be viewed as priorities for promoting sustainable forest management

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The top 10 countries for global tree cover loss (2001–19) <fn>Permanent loss is defined as tree cover tree cover loss due to commodity-driven deforestation, urbanization, or shifting agriculture within primary forests. See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#forestchange1">Data and Methods</a> for more information.</fn>

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The Top 10 Countries for Humid Tropical Primary Forest Loss from 2002 to 2019

This list indicates the tropical countries with the largest area of loss of humid tropical primary forests, areas of mature rainforest that are especially important for biodiversity and carbon storage. Primary forest loss includes both deforestation, such as the conversion of forests to pasture or agriculture, and some forms of forest degradation caused by, for example, understory forest fires. However, given that primary forests can take decades or even centuries to recover, even forest degradation events are of utmost concern. As such, this list represents some of the countries that are of greatest importance for conservation of humid tropical forests.  

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Top 10 countries for humid tropical primary forest loss (2002–19)

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Country Reviews

Learn more about forest trends in each of the countries featured in the lists above.

Australia

In Australia, the main drivers of tree cover loss are split between forestry and wildfire, with forestry activity typically occurring along the coast and wildfire in the interior. Wildfires in late 2019 resulted in a massive spike in tree cover loss in the country. Although Australia’s eucalyptus-dominated woodlands are adapted to cycles of fire, the severity and scale of the 2019 fires, coupled with a years-long drought, may result in long-term damage to the country’s forests.Nolan et al. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14987; Shuttleworth 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/australians-love-a-home-among-gum-trees-but-can-eucalyptus-forests-recover-from-the-fires/2020/01/17/413d25fa-36b7-11ea-a1ff-c48c1d59a4a1_story.html .

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Australia

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Bolivia

Tree cover loss in Bolivia has mostly been driven by commodity production, particularly the expansion of large-scale agriculture and cattle ranching in lowland forests.Müller et al. 2012, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-011-0259-0 . Fires also play a major role in Bolivian forests, with large burn scars visible in the tree cover loss data during the strong fire seasons of 2004–5 and 2010 and, most recently, in 2019.Global Fire Emissions Database 2020, https://www.globalfiredata.org/regional.html; Heyer et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-4317-2018 .  The 2019 fires were most likely started by humans to clear land for agriculture and pasture, but they spread out of control due to dry, windy conditions. Bolivia’s government had actively promoted the expansion of agriculture in recent years and reduced restrictions on clearing and fire, which may have contributed to the blazes.Romero-Muñoz et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz7264 .  

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Forest loss in Bolivia

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Bolivia

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Brazil

The majority of tree cover loss in Brazil is related to commodity production, especially for pastureland and cropland.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#commodities1">Data and Methods</a>.; Tyukavina et al. 2017, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601047">https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601047</a>. In the early 2000s, declines in tree cover loss reflect Brazil’s initiatives to reduce deforestation, such as an increased emphasis on law enforcement, near-real-time forest monitoring, and supply chain interventions.Nepstad et al. 2014, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248525 . The uptick in tree cover loss in 2016 and 2017 is primarily due to understory forest fires in the Amazon, generally started by people to prepare land for agriculture and pasture.Cochrane and Laurance 2008, https://www.nrem.iastate.edu/class/assets/nrem390-10/Cochrane%26Laurance_Tropics_Fire.pdf . Primary forest loss in the country has been increasing in recent years, with official data indicating that clear-cut deforestation in the Amazon is at its highest rate in over a decade.TerraBrasilis 2020, http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/app/dashboard/deforestation/biomes/legal_amazon/rates; Weisse and Goldman 2020, https://www.wri.org/blog/2020/06/global-tree-cover-loss-data-2019 .

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Loss in Brazil

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Brazil

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Cambodia

Most of Cambodia’s tree cover loss is related to commodity production, and it has been particularly rapid as part of large-scale land acquisitions in the country known as economic land concessions.Davis et al. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2540 . Previous studies have shown that the expansion of rubber plantations is responsible for around a quarter of Cambodia’s deforestation and is highly correlated to rubber prices, which peaked in 2011.Grogan et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-018-0325-4 .  Since 2001, Cambodia has lost 28 percent of its primary forests, some of the most important areas for biodiversity and carbon storage, which is the second-highest rate of primary forest loss of any tropical country.See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#primaryloss">Data and Methods</a>. 

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Loss in Cambodia

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Cambodia 

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Canada

Wildfire is the main driver of tree cover loss in Canada, particularly in the north of the country, followed by forestry, mostly to the south. These two drivers are less likely to entail permanent losses to the forest, so much of the loss is likely to be offset by regrowth.Curtis et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3445 . Fires are a natural part of the boreal forest ecosystem, but they can cause extensive economic damage, such as the 2016 Fort McMurray forest fire that was estimated to cause nearly C$10 billion in insurance losses,Di Liberto 2016, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/event-tracker/climate-connections-fort-mcmurray-fire .  and are likely to increase in frequency due to climate change.Wotton et al. 2010, https://doi.org/10.1071/WF09002 .  

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Canada

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China

The majority of China’s tree cover loss is related to forestry, which suggests that much of the area experiencing losses will eventually recover. China has implemented a massive reforestation campaign since the late 1990s, and many studies have indicated a large increase in tree cover as a result.Hua et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.03.034; Song et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0411-9; Viña et al. 2016, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500965 . However, there are some concerns that this increase has been made up of monoculture tree plantations and native forest cover has decreased.Hua et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.03.034 .

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in China

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Colombia

Tree cover loss in Colombia is primarily driven by shifting agriculture and commodity production. Colombia has experienced a dramatic uptick in tree cover loss in recent years, particularly in the country’s deforestation frontier in the Amazon.Weisse and Goldman 2018, https://www.wri.org/blog/2018/06/2017-was-second-worst-year-record-tropical-tree-cover-loss . The increase is likely linked to the peace process in Colombia; areas of the Amazon experienced a power vacuum after the demobilization of the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia; FARC), which allowed for rapid deforestation.Brodzinsky 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/11/colombia-deforestation-farc; Clerici et al. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61861-y; Prem et al. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104852 .

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Loss in Colombia

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Colombia

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The majority of tree cover loss in the country is linked to small-scale agriculture, generally as part of the agricultural mosaic known as the “rural complex.”See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#forestchange1">Data and Methods</a>. Molinario et al. 2017, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8680">https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8680</a>; Tyukavina et al. 2018, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat2993">https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat2993</a>. Population growth and displacement due to conflict may play a role in increasing tree cover loss in the country;Nackoney et al. 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.12.033; Tyukavina et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat2993 . however, some of the increase shown in the graph may be related to inconsistencies in the tree cover loss data, which may be better able to detect small-scale clearings in recent years due to better satellite data.The increase was particularly apparent after the launch of the Landsat 8 satellite in 2013, which resulted in better-quality images and increased detection of small-scale changes. 

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Loss in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Indonesia

In Indonesia, most tree cover loss is associated with commodity production, especially large-scale timber and oil palm plantations.Austin et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaf6db .  Human-induced fires related to agricultural activity also caused large-scale forest destructionWorld Bank 2016, http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/643781465442350600/Indonesia-forest-fire-notes.pdf . and led to harmful smogKoplitz et al. 2016, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094023 . and carbon emissions.Lohberger et al. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13841 . Fires were particularly prevalent during the El Niño events of 1997–98 and 2015–16. Indonesia saw a large reduction in tree cover loss starting in 2017, likely related to government policies to prevent clearing and fires.Weisse and Goldman 2020, https://www.wri.org/blog/2020/06/global-tree-cover-loss-data-2019 .

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Loss in Indonesia

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Indonesia

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Madagascar

Most tree cover loss in Madagascar is linked to shifting agriculture, and the increasing population is putting a strain on forests as fallow times are reduced and more areas are cleared.Ashby and Taylor 2017, https://news.mongabay.com/2017/11/to-feed-a-growing-population-farms-chew-away-at-madagascars-forests/; World Bank 2018, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL?locations=MG .  However, some of the sudden increase in tree cover loss after 2013 may be related to the launch of the Landsat 8 satellite that year—which improved the detection of change in small agricultural areas—rather than to an increase in change on the ground. Mining for gold and gemstones also contributes to deforestation in some areas of the country.Cabeza et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12475; Tullis 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/03/sapphire-mining-fuels-lemur-deaths-in-madagascar/ .

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Loss in Madagascar

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Madagascar 

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Malaysia

The majority of tree cover loss in Malaysia is due to commodity production;See Data and Methods <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#forestcover1">tree plantations</a>. however, more than half of the loss in recent years has occurred inside existing plantations, such as oil palm and rubber,See <a href="/gfr/data-and-methods#forestchange1">tree cover loss by dominant driver</a>. and likely represents the rotational cycles of those tree crops. Outside of those areas, the conversion of forests to industrial plantations and high-impact logging are major contributors to tree cover loss.Bryan et al. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069679; Gaveau et al. 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32017 .

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Loss in Malaysia

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Malaysia

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Paraguay

Most of Paraguay’s tree cover loss is linked to commodity production. In the east of the country, agricultural expansion has led to very little remaining forest cover.Huang et al. 2007, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.09.016; Szulecka 2017, https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/61460/Chapter.ID_48221_6x9_Julia_Szulecka.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y . The country passed the Zero-Deforestation Law in 2004 prohibiting further clearing of native forests in eastern Paraguay, which has largely curbed deforestation in this region.Szulecka 2017, https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/61460/Chapter.ID_48221_6x9_Julia_Szulecka.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y . In contrast, deforestation in the Chaco of western Paraguay has increased since 2000.Nolte et al. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.01.001; Szulecka 2017, https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/61460/Chapter.ID_48221_6x9_Julia_Szulecka.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y . Expansion of cattle ranching is the main driver.Baumann et al. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1109-5; Caldas et al. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423X.2013.807314 . Paraguay has lost 28 percent of its humid tropical primary forest cover (mostly located in the east of the country) since 2001, which is the highest rate of primary forest loss of any country in the tropics. 

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Loss in Paraguay

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Paraguay

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Peru

Forest loss in Peru tends to be smaller scale than in other countries in the Amazon, with most attributed to shifting agriculture. Three-quarters of forest loss occurs in areas smaller than five hectares.Kalamandeen et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-19358-2; Ministerio del Ambiente 2019, http://www.bosques.gob.pe/archivo/Apuntes-del-Bosque-N1.pdf .  Tree cover loss from the roads and infrastructure associated with logging is also prevalent throughout the Peruvian Amazon, where illegal logging is widespread.Global Witness 2019b, https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/forests/forest-avengers/; World Bank 2006, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/330441468161667685/Strengthening-forest-law-enforcement-and-governance-addressing-a-systemic-constraint-to-sustainable-development .  Gold mining and oil palm plantations are common contributors to tree cover loss in parts of the country, with most loss occurring in the southern Amazon and the central Amazon, respectively.Caballero Espejo et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121903; Vijay et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aae540 .   

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Loss in Peru

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Peru 

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Russia

Over two-thirds of all tree cover loss in Russia from 2001 to 2019 was driven by wildfires, with spikes in tree cover loss generally corresponding to spikes in fire activity.García-Lázaro et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060940 . The balance of tree cover loss was due mainly to forestry activities. Fires in Russia are a natural part of boreal forest dynamics, though some research suggests fires will become more severe due to climate change.De Groot et al. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.027 . Despite having more tree cover loss than any other country (64 million hectares [Mha], equivalent to the size of France), some studies suggest that Russia’s net forest area has actually increased in recent decades, possibly related to forest regrowth on farmland abandoned after the collapse of the Soviet Union.Baumann et al. 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.05.001; Potapov et al. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.11.027; Song et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0411-9 .  

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in Russia

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United States

Much of the tree cover loss in the United States is linked to forestry, with most of the loss areas likely to regenerate naturally or through direct reseeding or other silvicultural practices. The United States also has more tree cover loss driven by urbanization than any other country in the world, even though it only accounts for 7 percent of U.S. total loss.Curtis et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3445 .

Much of the tree cover loss in the United States is linked to forestry, with most of the loss areas likely to regenerate naturally or through direct reseeding or other silvicultural practices. The United States also has more tree cover loss driven by urbanization than any other country in the world, even though it only accounts for 7 percent of U.S. total loss.Curtis et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3445 .

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Loss in the United States

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Dominant drivers of tree cover loss in the United States

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{"Glossary":{"51":{"name":"agricultural tree crops","description":"Trees cultivated for their food, cultural, or economic values. These include oil palm, rubber, cocoa, cashew, mango, oranges (citrus), plantain, banana, and coconut.\r\n"},"94":{"name":"biodiversity intactness","description":"The proportion and abundance of a location\u0027s original forest community (number of species and individuals) that remain.\u0026nbsp;\r\n"},"95":{"name":"biodiversity significance","description":"The importance of an area for the persistence of forest-dependent species based on range rarity.\r\n"},"1":{"name":"deforestation","description":"The change from forest to another land cover or land use, such as forest to plantation or forest to urban area.\r\n"},"77":{"name":"deforested","description":"The change from forest to another land cover or land use, such as forest to plantation or forest to urban area.\r\n"},"76":{"name":"degradation","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"75":{"name":"degraded","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"79":{"name":"disturbances","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"68":{"name":"disturbed","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"65":{"name":"driver of tree cover loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"70":{"name":"drivers of loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"81":{"name":"drivers of tree cover loss","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"2":{"name":"forest","description":"Forests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than 5 meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\r\n"},"3":{"name":"forest concession","description":"A legal agreement allowing an entity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\r\n"},"90":{"name":"forest concessions","description":"A legal agreement allowing an entity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\r\n"},"53":{"name":"forest degradation","description":"The reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\r\n"},"54":{"name":"forest disturbance","description":"A discrete event that changes the structure of a forest ecosystem.\r\n"},"5":{"name":"forest fragmentation","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"6":{"name":"forest management plan","description":"A plan that documents the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land to meet environmental, economic, social, and cultural objectives. Such plans are typically implemented by companies in forest concessions.\r\n"},"62":{"name":"forests","description":"Forests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than 5 meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\r\n"},"69":{"name":"fragmentation","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"80":{"name":"fragmented","description":"The breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\r\n"},"74":{"name":"gain","description":"The establishment of tree canopy in an area that previously had no tree cover. Tree cover gain may indicate a number of potential activities, including natural forest growth or the crop rotation cycle of tree plantations.\r\n"},"7":{"name":"hectare","description":"One hectare equals 100 square meters, 2.47 acres, or 0.01 square kilometers and is about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (pitches are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\r\n"},"66":{"name":"hectares","description":"One hectare equals 100 square meters, 2.47 acres, or 0.01 square kilometers and is about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (pitches are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\r\n"},"67":{"name":"intact","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"78":{"name":"intact forest","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"8":{"name":"intact forests","description":"A forest that contains no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and is large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\r\n"},"55":{"name":"land and environmental defenders","description":"People who peacefully promote and protect rights related to land and\/or the environment.\r\n"},"9":{"name":"loss driver","description":"The direct cause of forest disturbance.\r\n"},"10":{"name":"low tree canopy density","description":"Less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\r\n"},"84":{"name":"managed forest concession","description":"Areas where governments have given rights to private companies to harvest timber and other wood products from natural forests on public lands.\r\n"},"83":{"name":"managed forest concession maps for nine countries","description":"Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Indonesia, Liberia, and the Republic of the Congo\r\n"},"91":{"name":"megacities","description":"A city with more than 10 million people.\r\n"},"57":{"name":"megacity","description":"A city with more than 10 million people."},"56":{"name":"mosaic restoration","description":"Restoration that integrates trees into mixed-use landscapes, such as agricultural lands and settlements, where trees can support people through improved water quality, increased soil fertility, and other ecosystem services. This type of restoration is more likely in deforested or degraded forest landscapes with moderate population density (10\u2013100 people per square kilometer). "},"86":{"name":"natural","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"12":{"name":"natural forest","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"63":{"name":"natural forests","description":"A forest that is grown without human intervention.\r\n"},"82":{"name":"persistent gain","description":"Forests that have experienced one gain event from 2001 to 2016.\r\n"},"13":{"name":"persistent loss and gain","description":"Forests that have experienced one loss or one gain event from 2001 to 2016."},"93":{"name":"plantations","description":"An area in which trees have been planted, generally for commercial purposes.\u0026nbsp;\r\n"},"88":{"name":"planted","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"14":{"name":"planted forest","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"73":{"name":"planted forests","description":"A forest composed of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\r\n"},"15":{"name":"primary forest","description":"Old-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The GFR uses a humid tropical primary rainforest data set, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\r\n"},"64":{"name":"primary forests","description":"Old-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The GFR uses a humid tropical primary rainforest data set, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\r\n"},"58":{"name":"production forest","description":"A forest where the primary management objective is to produce timber, pulp, fuelwood, and\/or nonwood forest products."},"89":{"name":"production forests","description":"A forest where the primary management objective is to produce timber, pulp, fuelwood, and\/or nonwood forest products.\r\n"},"87":{"name":"seminatural","description":"A managed forest modified by humans, which can have a different species composition from surrounding natural forests.\r\n"},"59":{"name":"seminatural forests","description":"A managed forest modified by humans, which can have a different species composition from surrounding natural forests. "},"96":{"name":"shifting agriculture","description":"Temporary loss or permanent deforestation due to small- and medium-scale agriculture.\r\n"},"17":{"name":"tree cover","description":"All vegetation greater than five meters in height and may take the form of natural forests or plantations across a range of canopy densities. Unless otherwise specified, the GFR uses greater than 30 percent tree canopy density for calculations.\r\n"},"71":{"name":"tree cover canopy density is low","description":"Less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\r\n"},"60":{"name":"tree cover gain","description":"The establishment of tree canopy in an area that previously had no tree cover. Tree cover gain may indicate a number of potential activities, including natural forest growth or the crop rotation cycle of tree plantations."},"18":{"name":"tree cover loss","description":"The removal or mortality of tree cover, which can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, loss does not equate to deforestation. "},"19":{"name":"tree plantation","description":"An agricultural plantation of fast-growing tree species on short rotations for the production of timber, pulp, or fruit.\r\n"},"72":{"name":"tree plantations","description":"An agricultural plantation of fast-growing tree species on short rotations for the production of timber, pulp, or fruit.\r\n"},"85":{"name":"trees outside forests","description":"Trees found in urban areas, alongside roads, or within agricultural land\u0026nbsp;are often referred to as Trees Outside Forests (TOF).\u202f\r\n"}}}