Authors and Contributors, Acknowledgments

{"Glossary":[{"name":"Deforestation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EDeforestation is the change from forest to another land cover, such as agriculture or urban area.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Natural forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003ENatural forest includes primary and secondary forest that is grown without human intervention.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Trees outside forests","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETrees found in urban areas, alongside roads, or within agricultural land are often referred to as Trees Outside Forests (TOF).\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Tree cover loss","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETree cover loss is the removal or mortality of tree cover and can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, \u201closs\u201d does not equate to deforestation.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Tree cover","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETree cover is all vegetation greater than five meters in height and make take the form of natural forests or plantations across a range of canopy densities.\u0026nbsp;Unless otherwise specified, the GFR uses greater than 30 percent tree canopy density for calculations.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Short tree height","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELess than 5 meters.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Primary forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EOld-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The Global Forest Review uses a humid tropical primary rainforest dataset, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Planted forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EPlanted forests are comprised of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Persistent loss and gain","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForests that have experienced one loss or one gain event from 2001-2016).\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Mosaic restoration","description":"\u003Cp\u003EMosaic restoration integrates trees into mixed-use landscapes, such as agricultural lands and settlements, where trees can support people through improved water quality, increased soil fertility, and other ecosystem services. This type of restoration is more likely in deforested or degraded forest landscapes with moderate population density (10 - 100 people\/km2).\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than five meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Low tree canopy density","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELow tree canopy density is\u0026nbsp;less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Loss driver","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELoss driver is the direct cause of forest disturbance.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Intact forests","description":"\u003Cp\u003EIntact forests contain no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and are large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Hectare","description":"\u003Cp\u003EOne hectare is 0.01 square kilometers (e.g., 100m x 100m) and about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (they are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest management plan","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest management plan documents the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land to meet environmental, economic, social and cultural objectives.\u0026nbsp;They are typically implemented by companies in forest concessions.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest fragmentation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest fragmentation is the breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest degradation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest degradation is the reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest concession","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest concession is a legal agreement allowing an\u003Cstrong\u003E\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/strong\u003Eentity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Wide-scale restoration","description":"\u003Cp\u003EWide-scale restoration restores large, closed forest areas in the landscape.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"}]}

Authors and Contributors, Acknowledgments

  • Authors and Contributors

    Tim Searchinger (WRI and Princeton University)

    Lead author

    Richard Waite (WRI) Craig Hanson (WRI) Janet Ranganathan (WRI)

    Lead modeler: Patrice Dumas (CIRAD)

    Editor: Emily Matthews

    Tim Searchinger, Richard Waite, and Tim Beringer (Humboldt University at Berlin) contributed to development of the GlobAgri-WRR model, as did a number of researchers from the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement, and the Institut national de la recherche agronomique, including Agneta Forslund, Hervé Guyomard, Chantal Le Mouël, Stéphane Manceron, and Elodie Marajo-Petitzon.

    Major GlobAgri-WRR model subcomponents include a livestock model with lead developers Mario Herrero (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) and Petr Havlík (IIASA), with additional contributions from Stefan Wirsenius (Chalmers University of Technology); a land-use model with lead developer Fabien Ramos (European Commission Joint Research Centre); a rice model with lead developer Xiaoyuan Yan (Chinese Institute for Soil Science); a nitrogen emissions model with lead developer Xin Zhang (Princeton University); and an aquaculture model with lead developers Mike Phillips (WorldFish) and Rattanawan Mungkung (Kasetsart University).

    A number of individuals were coauthors on working papers that serve as the foundation for the full report, this synthesis report, and many of the menu items profiled therein. They include Tapan K. Adhya (KIIT University, India), Tamara Ben Ari (INRA), Maryline Boval (INRA), Tim Beringer (Humboldt University at Berlin), Malcolm Beveridge (WorldFish), Randall Brummett (World Bank), Sarah Castine (WorldFish), Philippe Chemineau (INRA), Nuttapon Chaiyawannakarn (Kasetsart University), Ayesha Dinshaw (WRI), Patrice Dumas (CIRAD), Dennis Garrity (World Agroforestry Centre), Jerry Glover (U.S. Agency for International Development), Sarah Harper (Oxford Institute of Population Ageing and University of Oxford), Ralph Heimlich (Agricultural Conservation Economics), Debbie Hellums (International Fertilizer Development Center), Norbert Henninger (WRI), Sadasivam Kaushik (INRA), Lisa Kitinoja (The Postharvest Education Foundation), Jean-Marc Lacape (CIRAD), George Leeson (Oxford Institute of Population Ageing and University of Oxford), Bruce Linquist (University of California at Davis), Brian Lipinski (WRI), David Makowski (INRA), Mike McGahuey (U.S. Agency for International Development), Rattanawan Mungkung (Kasetsart University), Supawat Nawapakpilai (Kasetsart University), Michael Phillips (WorldFish), Chris Reij (WRI), Katie Reytar (WRI), Sara Scherr (EcoAgiculture Partners), Daniel Vennard (WRI), Reiner Wassmann (International Rice Research Institute, Philippines), Robert Winterbottom (WRI), and Xiaoyuan Yan (Institute for Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences).


    We are pleased to acknowledge our institutional strategic partners, who provide core funding to WRI: Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

    The authors are grateful to the following peers who provided critical reviews and helpful suggestions to this synthesis report: Gary Atlin (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation), Tobias Baedeker (World Bank), Erin Biehl (Johns Hopkins University Center for a Livable Future—JHU-CLF), Randall Brummett (World Bank), Rebecca Carter (WRI), Tim Christophersen (UN Environment), Ed Davey (WRI), Chris Delgado (WRI), Adriana Dinu (UNDP), Natalie Elwell (WRI), Jamison Ervin (UNDP), Roger Freedman (2Blades Foundation), James Gaffney (DuPont), Tess Geers (Oceana), Charles Godfray (Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food), Hidayah Hamzah (WRI), Nancy Harris (WRI), Mario Herrero (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Jillian Holzer (WRI), Lisa Johnston (WRI), Doyle Karr (DuPont), Kelly Levin (WRI), David Lobell (Stanford Center on Food Security and the Environment), James Lomax (UN Environment), Jared Messinger (WRI), Charles McNeill (UN Environment), Joseph Monfort (DuPont), James Mulligan (WRI), Carlos Nobre (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), Lily Odarno (WRI), Mark Peterson (DuPont), Michael Phillips (WorldFish), Becky Ramsing (JHU-CLF), Raychel Santo (JHU-CLF), Frances Seymour (WRI), Fred Stolle (WRI), Guntur Subbarao (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences), Rod Taylor (WRI), Philip Thornton (International Livestock Research Institute), Robert Townsend (World Bank), Peter Veit (WRI), Sara Walker (WRI), Arief Wijaya (WRI), Stefan Wirsenius (Chalmers University of Technology), Christy Wright (DuPont), Graham Wynne (WRI), and Edoardo Zandri (UN Environment).

    The authors extend a special thanks to Nikos Alexandratos (FAO) and Jelle Bruinsma (FAO), who were generous in providing information and guidance about the FAO agricultural projections to 2050; Michael Obersteiner (IIASA), who provided information about the GLOBIOM model; Tom Kram Fam (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), who provided information for analyzing the IMAGE model results, and Benjamin Bodirsky (Potsdam Institute for Climate Research) for his thorough review of the GlobAgri-WRR model.

    In addition, the authors thank several WRI colleagues who provided research, data, analysis, and editing services in support of this synthesis report: Abraar Ahmad, Austin Clowes, Ayesha Dinshaw, Tyler Ferdinand, Rutger Hofste, Tara Mahon, Cecelia Mercer, Gerard Pozzi, Yangshengjing Qiu, and Paul Reig. We thank our colleague Liz Goldman for preparing several of the maps in the synthesis report.

    This synthesis report was improved by the careful review of its framing and argumentation by Emily Matthews, Daryl Ditz, Laura Malaguzzi Valeri, and Liz Goodwin. The synthesis report was shepherded through the publication process by WRI’s experienced publications team, particularly Emily Matthews and Maria Hart. We thank Alex Martin and Bob Livernash for their careful copyediting. We thank Carni Klirs for synthesis report design and layout. In addition, we thank Bill Dugan, Billie Kanfer, Julie Moretti, Sarah Parsons, Romain Warnault, and Lauren Zelin, for additional design, strategy, and editorial support.

    WRI is deeply grateful for the generous financial support for this synthesis report—and for the series of working papers underlying this report—from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment, the World Bank, and the institutional strategic partners listed above. In addition, we would like to thank the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for supporting background research on the “improving soil and water management” menu item.

    Photo credits
    Cover: Getty images, Pgs. ii, iii Sande Murunga/CIFOR, Pg. iv Pacific Disaster Center, Pg. 4 Thomas Hawk, Pg. 6 Julien Harne, Pg. 12 Ella Olsson, Pg. 20 Ollivier Girard/CIFOR, Pg. 24 IAEA Image Lab, Pg. 25 World Agroforestry Centre, Page 26. Dennis Jarvis, Pg. 28 Neil Palmer/CIAT, Pg. 30 Mokhamad Edliadi/CIFOR, Pg. 33 Patrick Shepherd/CIFOR, Pg. 35. Pedro Brancalion/Bioflora, Pg. 37 Nanang Sujana/CIFOR, Pg. 38 Heba El-Begawi/WorldFish, Pg. 42 Isabell Schulz, Pg. 46 Bob Nichols/USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Pg. 47 CIAT, Pg. 49 Africa Rice Center, Pg. 50 InnoAfrica, Pg. 52 Michael Trolove, Pg. 53 Kyle Spradley/Curators of the University of Missouri, Pg. 54 Anguskirk, Pg. 60 Kate Evans/CIFOR, Pg. 64 Ollivier Girard/CIFOR, Pg. 66. Axel Fassio/CIFOR, Pg. 67 Icaro Cooke Vieira/CIFOR, Pg. 73 RachelC.Photography, Pg. 74 Aditya Basrur, Pg. 77 Sharada Prasad.

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