Table of Contents (Synthesis)

{"Glossary":[{"name":"Deforestation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EDeforestation is the change from forest to another land cover, such as agriculture or urban area.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Natural forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003ENatural forest includes primary and secondary forest that is grown without human intervention.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Trees outside forests","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETrees found in urban areas, alongside roads, or within agricultural land are often referred to as Trees Outside Forests (TOF).\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Tree cover loss","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETree cover loss is the removal or mortality of tree cover and can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, \u201closs\u201d does not equate to deforestation.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Tree cover","description":"\u003Cp\u003ETree cover is all vegetation greater than five meters in height and make take the form of natural forests or plantations across a range of canopy densities.\u0026nbsp;Unless otherwise specified, the GFR uses greater than 30 percent tree canopy density for calculations.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Short tree height","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELess than 5 meters.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Primary forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EOld-growth forests that are typically high in carbon stock and rich in biodiversity. The Global Forest Review uses a humid tropical primary rainforest dataset, representing forests in the humid tropics that have not been cleared in recent years.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Planted forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EPlanted forests are comprised of trees that have been deliberately planted and\/or seeded by humans.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Persistent loss and gain","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForests that have experienced one loss or one gain event from 2001-2016).\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Mosaic restoration","description":"\u003Cp\u003EMosaic restoration integrates trees into mixed-use landscapes, such as agricultural lands and settlements, where trees can support people through improved water quality, increased soil fertility, and other ecosystem services. This type of restoration is more likely in deforested or degraded forest landscapes with moderate population density (10 - 100 people\/km2).\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForests include tree cover greater than 30 percent tree canopy density and greater than five meters in height as mapped at a 30-meter Landsat pixel scale.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Low tree canopy density","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELow tree canopy density is\u0026nbsp;less than 30 percent tree canopy density.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Loss driver","description":"\u003Cp\u003ELoss driver is the direct cause of forest disturbance.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Intact forests","description":"\u003Cp\u003EIntact forests contain no signs of human activity or habitat fragmentation as determined by remote sensing images and are large enough to maintain all native biological biodiversity.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Hectare","description":"\u003Cp\u003EOne hectare is 0.01 square kilometers (e.g., 100m x 100m) and about the size of a rugby field. A football pitch is slightly smaller than a hectare (they are between 0.62 and 0.82 hectares).\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest management plan","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest management plan documents the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land to meet environmental, economic, social and cultural objectives.\u0026nbsp;They are typically implemented by companies in forest concessions.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest fragmentation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest fragmentation is the breaking of large, contiguous forests into smaller pieces, with other land cover types interspersed.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest degradation","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest degradation is the reduction in a forest\u2019s ability to perform ecosystem services, such as carbon storage and water regulation, due to natural and anthropogenic changes.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Forest concession","description":"\u003Cp\u003EForest concession is a legal agreement allowing an\u003Cstrong\u003E\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/strong\u003Eentity the right to manage a public forest for production purposes.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"},{"name":"Wide-scale restoration","description":"\u003Cp\u003EWide-scale restoration restores large, closed forest areas in the landscape.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n"}]}

Table of Contents (Synthesis)

  • Executive Summary

    Scope of the Challenge and Menu of Possible Solutions

    • Chapter 1. A Recipe for Change
    • Chapter 2. A Tale of Three Gaps
    • Chapter 3. Additional Sustainability Criteria
    • Chapter 4. Menu for a Sustainable Food Future
    • Endnotes

    Course 1: Reduce Growth in Demand for Food and Other Agricultural Products

    • Chapter 5. Menu Item: Reduce Food Loss and Waste
    • Chapter 6. Menu Item: Shift to Healthier and More Sustainable Diets
    • Chapter 7. Menu Item: Avoid Competition from Bioenergy for Food Crops and Land
    • Chapter 8. Menu Item: Achieve Replacement-Level Fertility Rates
    • Chapter 9. Poverty Implications of Restricting Growth in Food Demand
    • Endnotes

    Course 2: Increase Food Production without Expanding Agricultural Land

    • Chapter 10. Assessing the Challenge of Limiting Agricultural Land Expansion
    • Chapter 11. Menu Item: Increase Livestock and Pasture Productivity
    • Chapter 12. Menu Item: Improve Crop Breeding to Boost Yields
    • Chapter 13. Menu Item: Improve Soil and Water Management
    • Chapter 14. Menu Item: Plant Existing Cropland More Frequently
    • Chapter 15. Menu Item: Adapt to Climate Change
    • Chapter 16. How Much Could Boosting Crop and Livestock Productivity Contribute to
    • Closing the Land and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Gaps?
    • Endnotes

    Course 3: Protect and Restore Natural Ecosystems and Limit Agricultural Land-Shifting

    • Chapter 17. The Causes and Consequences of Agricultural Land-Shifting
    • Chapter 18. Menu Item: Link Productivity Gains with Protection of Natural Ecosystems
    • Chapter 19. Menu Item: Limit Inevitable Cropland Expansion to Lands with Low Environmental Opportunity Costs
    • Chapter 20. Menu Item: Reforest Abandoned, Unproductive, and Liberated Agricultural Lands
    • Chapter 21. Menu Item: Conserve and Restore Peatlands
    • Endnotes

    Course 4: Increase Fish Supply

    • Chapter 22. Menu Item: Improve Wild Fisheries Management
    • Chapter 23. Menu Item: Improve Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture
    • Endnotes

    Course 5: Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    • Chapter 24. Menu Item: Reduce Enteric Fermentation through New Technologies
    • Chapter 25. Menu Item: Reduce Emissions through Improved Manure Management
    • Chapter 26. Menu Item: Reduce Emissions from Manure Left on Pasture
    • Chapter 27. Menu Item: Reduce Emissions from Fertilizers by Increasing Nitrogen Use Efficiency
    • Chapter 28. Menu Item: Adopt Emissions-Reducing Rice Management and Varieties
    • Chapter 29. Menu Item: Increase Agricultural Energy Efficiency and Shift to Nonfossil Energy Sources
    • Chapter 30. Menu Item: Focus on Realistic Options to Sequester Carbon in Agricultural Soils
    • Chapter 31. The Need for Flexible Regulations
    • Endnotes

    The Complete Menu: Creating a Sustainable Food Future

    • Chapter 32. Combining Menu Items: Three Increasing Levels of Global Ambition
    • Chapter 33. A Tale of Three Gaps, Revisited
    • Chapter 34. Insights from the Menu Combinations
    • Endnotes

    Cross-Cutting Policies for a Sustainable Food Future

    • Chapter 35. Farm Structures, Large Land Acquisitions, Property Rights, and Contractual Arrangements
    • Chapter 36. Carbon-Pricing Strategies and Financing of Climate-Smart Agriculture
    • Chapter 37. Strengthening Research and Development
    • Endnotes

    Conclusions

    Appendices

    References

    Authors and Contributors, Acknowledgments

    About the Partners